Student Selection of Content Licenses in OER-enabled Pedagogy
An Exploratory Study
Students acting as content creators is an emergent trend in the field of open educational practice. As more faculty turn towards the use of open pedagogy or OER-enabled Pedagogy, they must be prepared to address concerns related to intellectual property rights of student work. This article addresses student concerns related to intellectual property rights, specifically related to Creative Commons licensing as well as faculty awareness of use of Creative Commons licensing. Research was conducted at a small, liberal arts college in the Appalachian Region of the United States. All first-year students engaged in an OER-enabled Pedagogy project where they collaboratively created a reader for the First Year Studies seminar course. Following class, students and faculty were interviewed regarding how dynamics of intellectual property and Creative Commons licensing impacted the educational process. Results indicate students are open to sharing their works with credit, and value helping others. Faculty tend to be unfamiliar with Creative Commons licensing and must balance the desire to help students understand licensing and prescribing their own preferences when asked about licensing selection.
Al Abri, M. H. & Dabbagh, N. (2019). Testing the intervention of OER renewable assignments in a college course. Open Praxis, 11(2), 195-209. https://doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.11.2.916
Boulton, C. A., Hughes, E., Kent, C., Smith, J. R., & Williams, H. T. P. (2019). Student engagement and wellbeing over time at a higher education institution. PLoS One, 14(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225770
Berger, R. (2015). Now I see it, now I don’t: Researcher’s position and reflexivity in qualitative research. Qualitative Research, 15(2), 219–234. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794112468475
Charmaz, K. (2012). The power and potential of Grounded Theory. Medical Sociology Online, 6(3), 2–15. https://web.archive.org/web/20150615071516/http://www.medicalsociologyonline.org/resources/Vol6Iss3/MSo-600x_The-Power-and-Potential-Grounded-Theory_Charmaz.pdf
Cronin, C., & MacLaren, I. (2018). Conceptualising OEP: A review of theoretical and empirical literature in open educational practices. Open Praxis, 10(2), 127–143. https://doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.10.2.825
DeRosa, R., & Robison, S. (2017). From OER to open pedagogy: Harnessing the power of open. In R. S. Jhangiani & R. Biswas-Diener (Eds.), Open: The philosophy and practices that are revolutionizing education and science (pp. 115–124). Ubiquity.
Dewey, J. (2018, April 1). First year experience programs. 1–4. Salem Press.
Elder, A. (2019). Considerations for using open pedagogy. The OER starter kit. Accessed at the Iowa State University Digital Press: https://iastate.pressbooks.pub/oerstarterkit/chapter/considerations-open-pedagogy/
Flick (2000). Triangulation in qualitative research. In U. Flick, E. von Kardorff, & I. Steinke (Eds), A companion to qualitative research. Sage. p. 178-182.
Gallup. (2019, October 22). Engagement and hope positively influence student outcomes. https://www.gallup.com/education/267740/engagement-hope-positively-influence-student-outcomes.aspx
Green, C. (2017). Open licensing and open education licensing policy, In R. S. Jhangiani & R. Biswas-Diener (Eds.), Open: The philosophy and practices that are revolutionizing education and science (pp. 29–41). Ubiquity.
Hanover Research. (2014). Strategies for improving student retention. https://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/Strategies-for-Improving-Student-Retention.pdf
Hegarty, B. (2015). Attributes of open pedagogy: A model for using open educational resources. Educational Technology, 55(4), 3–13. https://www.jstor.org/stable/44430383
Hilton III, J., Wiley, D., Chaffee, R., Darrow, J., Guilmett, J., Harper, S., & Hilton, B. (2019). Student perceptions of open pedagogy: An exploratory study. Open Praxis, 11(3), 275–288. https://doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.11.3.973
Hodgkinson-Williams, C. A., & Trotter, H. (2018). A social justice framework for understanding open educational resources and practices in the global south. Journal of Learning for Development, 5(3), 204–224. https://jl4d.org/index.php/ejl4d/article/view/312
Kahn, P. E. (2014). Theorising student engagement in higher education. British Educational Research Journal, 40(6), 1005–1018. https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3121
Khandkar, S. (n.d.). Open coding. Accessed June 3, 2021, at the University of Calgary website: https://pages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~saul/wiki/uploads/CPSC681/open-coding.pdf
Kleinman, M. (2008). The beauty of “some rights reserved”: Introducing Creative Commons to librarians, faculty, and students. College & Research Libraries News, 69(10), 594–597. https://doi.org/10.5860/crln.69.10.8077
Lambert, S. R. (2018). Changing our (dis)course: A distinctive social justice aligned definition of open education. Journal of Learning and Development, 5(3), 225–244. https://jl4d.org/index.php/ejl4d/article/view/290/
Lane, A. (2009). The impact of openness on bridging educational digital divides. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(5). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v10i5.637
Lessig, L. (2004). The Creative Commons. Montana Law Review, 65(1). https://scholarship.law.umt.edu/mlr/vol65/iss1/1
Liu, C.-C., Lin, C.-C., Chang, C.-Y., & Chao, P.-Y. (2014). Knowledge sharing among university students facilitated with a Creative Commons licensing mechanism: A case study in a programming course. Educational Technology & Society, 17(3), 154–167. https://www.jstor.org/stable/jeductechsoci.17.3.154
Mays, E. (2017). Student rights and faculty responsibilities. In: A Guide to Making Open Textbooks with Students. Accessed June 4, 2021, at the Rebus Press website: https://press.rebus.community/makingopentextbookswithstudents/part/student-rights-faculty-responsibilities/
Nguyen, C. (2011). Challenges of student engagement in community colleges. Vermont Connection, 32, 58–66. https://www.uvm.edu/~vtconn/v32/Nguyen.pdf
Pino-James, N. (2018). Evaluation of a pedagogical model for student engagement in learning activities. Educational Action Research, 26(3), 456–479. https://doi.org/10.1080/09650792.2017.1354771
Ravas, T. (2016). Copyright for undergraduates: Lessons learned while teaching a semester-length online course. Journal of Copyright in Education and Librarianship, 1(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.17161/jcel.v1i1.5916
Roberts, J., & Styron, R. (2010). Student satisfaction and persistence: Factors vital to student retention. Research in Higher Education Journal, 6. https://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/09321.pdf
Seaman, J. E., & Seaman, J. (2018). Freeing the textbook: Educational resources in U.S. higher education, 2018. Babson Survey Research Group. https://www.onlinelearningsurvey.com/reports/freeingthetextbook2018.pdf
Seraphin, S. B., Grizzell, J. A., Kerr-German, A., Perkins, M. A., Grzanka, P. R., & Hardin, E. E. (2019). A conceptual framework for non-disposable assignments: Inspiring implementation, innovation, and research. Psychology Learning and Teaching, 18(1), 84–97. https://doi.org/10.1177/1475725718811711
Skjott Linneberg, M., & Korsgaard, S. (2019). Coding qualitative data: A synthesis guiding the novice. Qualitative Research Journal, 19(3), 259–270. https://doi.org/10.1108/QRJ-12-2018-0012
Smit, R. (2012). Towards a clearer understanding of student disadvantage in higher education: Problematising deficit thinking. Higher Education Research & Development, 31(3), 369–380. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2011.634383
SocioCultural Research Consultants, LLC. (n.d.). Dedoose. https://www.dedoose.com/
Upadyaya, K., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2013). Development of school engagement in association with academic success and well-being in varying social contexts: A review of empirical research. European Psychologist, 18(2), 136–147. https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040/a000143
Wiley, D. (2013, October 21). What is open pedagogy? Improving Learning. https://opencontent.org/blog/archives/2975
Wiley, D., & Hilton, J. L. (2018). Defining OER-enabled pedagogy. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 19(4), 133–147. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v19i4.3601
Wiley, D., Webb, A., Weston, S., & Tonks, D. (2017). A preliminary exploration of the relationships between student-created OER, sustainability, and students’ success. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(4). p. 60-69. doi: https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v18i4.3022
Yacek, D. W., & Jonas, M. E. (2019). The problem of student disengagement: Struggle, escapism and Nietzsche’s birth of tragedy. Philosophical Inquiry in Education, 26(1), 64–87. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1218466.pdf